Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

Here is a response to the question that I received from: http://www.foodpicker.org

 Q) Diabetes runs in my family and I think this puts me at risk.  Could you tell me what are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

 Type 2 diabetes is a condition marked with high blood sugar in the blood. In type 2 diabetes the body does not respond well to insulin, so the blood sugar does not enter the cell to be stored as energy causing hyperglycemia (excess blood sugar). As a result the pancreas produces more and more insulin but it is not enough to keep up with the body’s demand.

  • Hyperglycemia is first observed in postprandial blood glucose level due to insulin resistance followed by elevation in the fasting blood glucose level.
  • Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:
    • Family history of diabetes (parents or siblings)
    • Obesity particularly intra-abdominal obesity
    • Are overweight with a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2
    • Physical inactivity
    • Intake of excessive calories
    • Hypertension (blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg)
    • Have a low High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) ≤ 35mg/dl and triglyceride > 250 mg/dl
    •  Had impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (pre-diabetes)
  • Symptoms can vary from person to person and include:
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Excessive thirst
    • Excessive urination
    • Unexplained weight loss     
  • Proper lifestyle changes include:

The goal is to manage the blood glucose level to normal.

  • Regular exercise of moderate intensity for 30 min for days of the week
  • Making the right food choices- include whole grains, fruits and vegetables, low fat food choices
  • Losing weight ~ 1-2 lbs /week, can help maintain blood sugar levels
  • Reducing total calorie intake

 Below is a table to refer to the recommended blood glucose goals for diabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the American Association of Clinical Endrocrinologists (AACE): 

Goal ADA AACE
Pre-prandial (before eating) 90-130 mg/dl 110 mg/dl
Post-prandial (1-2 hours after beginning to eat) < 180 mg/dl 140 mg/dl

 

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